Savage, Neil 2023, ‘Drug discovery companies are customizing Chat GPT: here’s how.’ Nature Biotechnology, 41, pp.585 - 586.

Letford, Heidi 2023, ‘How CAR-T cells became the hot rods of cancer therapy’, Nature, 613, pp.626 - 628.

Ritskies-Holtinga, Merel, 28 April, 2022, ‘Medical regulators: look beyond animal tests’ Nature 604, p.599.

Webb, C. et al 2019 ‘Animal Ethics and Behavioral Science: An Overdue Discussion’, Bioscience 29 Issue 10, pp.778 - 788

Animal Experimentation: working towards Paradigm Change, 2019, Brill, Open Access

ALTEX - Alternatives to animal experimentation is an open access journal covering research on alternatives.

For example:

Petersen, E.J. et al, 2022 ’Technical framework for enabling hihg-quality measurements in new approach methodologies (NAMs) ALTEX

Wang, Q et al, 2022 ‘Assessment of a 3D neural spheroid model to detect pharmaceutical-induced neurotoxicity’, ALTEX doi,org/10.14573/altex.2112221

Daley, M.D. et al 2022 ‘Beyond pharmaceuticals: Fit-for-purpose new approach methodologies for environmental cardiotoxicity testing’,ALTEX doi:10.14573/altex.2109131

Herrmann, Kathrin, et al 2019 ‘Beyond the 3Rs: Expanding the use of human-relevant replacement, methods in biomedical research’,ALTEX 36 (3) pp. 343 - 352.

Kopaniska, K et al 2019 ‘Advanced in vitro models analysis’, *ALTEX - Alternatives to animal experimentation’, 36 (1), pp.144 - 147.

Proenca, S et al 2019 ‘Insights into in vitro biokinetics using Virtual Cell Based Assay simulations’, ALTEX 36 (1)

von Aulock, S. 2019 ‘Is there an end in sight for animal testing? An organ-on-a-chip replace animal use in safety testing with advanced human-focused approaches?’ ALTEX 1, pp.142 - 144.

Gruber, FP et al 2004 ‘Alternatives to animal experimentation in basic research’, ALTEX 21 (Supp 1), pp. 3 - 31. Pavone, R 2015 ‘Animal Experimentation and animal welfare in the context of the European Union’ BioLaw Journal Rivista di BioDiritto, N.3.

Hartung, T 2013 ‘Food for Thought. Look back in anger - what clinical studies tell us about preclinical work’, ALTEX 30 (3) pp. 275 - 291.

Leist, M et al 2008 ‘The dawning of a new age of toxicology’ ALTEX 25 (2) pp. 1-3 - 114.

Knight, A. 2008 ‘Non-animal methodologies within biomedical research and toxicity testing’. ALTEX, 25 (3), pp. 213 - 231.

Hartung T et al 2008 ‘Food for Thought … on the evolution of toxicology and the phasing out of animal testing’, ALTEX 25 (2), pp. 91-96.

Hendriksen, CF 2006 ‘Towards eliminating the use of animals for regulatory required vaccine quality control’, ALTEX 23 (3) , pp. 187 - 190.

Piera, S et al 2005 ‘Ahimsa and alternatives - the concept of the 4th R. The CPCSEA in India’ ALTEX , 22 (1) pp. 3-6.

ALTA - Alternatives to Laboratory Animals is a subscriber based journal covering research on alternatives published by FRAME: the Fund for the Replacement of Animals in Medical Experiments.

For example:

Kolesky, DB et al 2018 ‘In vitro human tissues via multi-material 3-D bioprinting’, ALTA 46, pp. 209 - 217.

Cheng, S et al 2017 ‘Harmonisation of Animal Testing Alternatives in China’ ALTA 45, pp. 333 - 338.

Curren, RD et al 1995, ‘The Role of Prevalidation in the Development, Validation and Acceptance of Alternative Methods’, ‘ECVAM Prevalidation Task Force Report’ 1, ALTA 23, pp. 211 - 217.

Langley, G et cal 2000, ‘Volunteer studies replacing animal experiments in brain research: Report and recommendations of volunteers in research and testing workshop’, ALTA 28, pp. 315 - 331.

Seibert, H et al 1996, ‘Acute Toxicity Testing In Vitro and the Classification and Labelling of Chemicals’, ECVAM Workshop Report 16, ALTA 24, pp. 499 - 510.

Worth, AP et al 2002 ‘Alternative (non-animal) methods for chemical testing: current status and future prospects.’ ALTA, 30, Supp. 1, p. 125.

Hendriksen, CFM et al 1994 ‘Alternatives to Animal Testing in teh Quality Control of Immunobiologcals: Current Status and Future Prospects. ECVAM Workshop Report 4’, ALTA 22, pp. 420 - 434.

Coombes, R et al 2004 ‘The Third FRAME Toxicity Committee: working toward greater implementation of alternatives in toxicity testing’, ALTA 32 (Supp. 1), pp. 635 - 642.

Coombes, R et al 2006 "An Overall strategy for the tesing of chemicals for human hazard and risk assessment unet the EU REACH system,’ ALTA 34 (Supp. 1), pp. 15 - 27.

Readings in other journals or books

Atora, et al 2011 ‘Substitute of Animals in Drug Research’ Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 73 (1) pp. 1 - 6.

De Boo, J. & Knight, A 2008 ‘Increasing the implementation of alternatives to laboratory animal use’ , Alternatives to Animal Testing & Experimentation, AATEX, 13 (3), pp. 109 - 117.

Hermann, K and Jayne, K (eds) Animal Experimentation: Working Towards a Paradigm Change. Download free:

Jukes, N et al 2003 From guinea pig to computer mouse: alternative methods for a progressive human education Second edition, InterNICHE, Leicester, UK.

Lyons, E 2011 ‘Protecting animals versus the pursuit of knowledge’, Society & Animals, 19, pp. 356 - 367.

Ohno, Y 2008 ‘Importance of research on alternatives to animal experiments in pharmaceutical sciences’ (Japanese) Yakugaku Zasshi, 128 (5) pp. 735 - 740.

Reinhardt, CA (ed) 1994 Alternatives to Animal Testing. New Ways in the Biomedical Sciences, Trends and Progress, VCH, Weinheim.

Knight, AS. 2011 The costs and benefits of animal experiments Palgrave Macmillan, Hampshire, U.K.

Zucco, MF et al 2005 ’Alternative methods in animal experimentation: evaluating scientific, ethical and social issues in the 3Rs context. Final Report and Recommendations, D8, Brussels, Belgium: European Commission - Research Directorate-General; Directorate E - Biotechnology, Agriculture and Food, QLG6-2001-00028.

See also *EUSSAAT - European Society for Alternative to Animal Testing


ALTBIB Bibliography on Alternatives to Animal Testing; US National Library of Medicine

Alternatives to Animal Testing on the Web (ALTWEB)

Animal Welfare Information Center (AWIC): National Agriculture Library (USA).

British Union for the Abolition of Vivisection

CaCVAM Canadian Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods Media Centre** Center for alternatives to animal testing**>media

ECVAM Scientific Information Service (SIS)

European Centre for the Validation of Alternatives (ECOPA)

European Consensus Platform for Alternatives (ECOPA)

European Resource Centre for Alternatives in Higher Education (EURCA)

go3R: a knowledge-based semantic search engine for alternatives to animal experiments. It is limited to searching PubMed.

ICVAAM (USA) Interagency Coordinating Committee on the Validation of Alternative Methods.

Inter-NICHE: 42 South Knighton Road, Leicester, LE23LP, UK.

JaCVAM Japanese Center for the Validation of Alternative Methods

National German Centre for Documentation and Evaluation of Alternatives to Animal Experiments: ZEBET database on alternative to animal experiments on the internet

National Library of Medicine (USA): publishes a regular annotated bibliography on alternatives to animal testing.

NC3Rs- UK Centre for the Replacement, Refinement and Reduction of Animals in Research.

NKCA The National Knowledge Centre on Alternatives to Animal Experiments

Nordic Information Centre for Alternative Methods (NICA)

NORINAA database containing informaion on over 3,800 audiovisual aids that may be used as alternatives or supplements to the use of animals in teaching and training, including dissection alternatives at all levels from junior school to university.

The Netherlands Centre for Alternatives to Animal Use (NCA)

SKoCVAM Korean Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods

SEFREC: A database of current serum-free cells and serium-free medias. The database provides users with all necessary information about products, product numbers, contact information etc.

Veterinary Information Portal (VIP) VIP is a gateway to teaching information and resources on the web. All content is added by academic staff and students of the Faculty of Veterinary Science at the University of Sydney.

ZEBET Centre for Documentation and Evaluation of Alternative Methods to Animal Experiments.

Local promotion of innovative new research methods being used by Australian researchers: https// and non-animal case studies ( or interviews (


When searching for information on the internet, a lot of the material cannot be accessed by standard search engines. For example, documents where the text is inaccessible to the search engines such as information on company intranets and text inside password protected documents or databases.

FRAME and the Animal Welfare Information Center (AWIC) sites give guidance on how to search other databases, such as Medline, for information on Replacement Alternatives.

The Norwegian Reference Centre for Laboratory Animal Science and Alternatives has also written a comprehensive paper: Smith, AJ et al 2005 ‘The use of databases, information centres and guidelines when planning research that may involve animals’, Animal Welfare, 14, pp. 347 - 359.

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